The classroom management process depicted here borrows heavily from various methodologies, the most prominent being the CHAMPs classroom management model (please note that the Correction Procedure advocated by Sprick are not followed and emphasis is instead placed on a behavior model developed by Dr. Marvin Marshall), developed by Randy Sprick and Stephen Covey's 7 Habits. The following basic beliefs guide the classroom management process:
  • Teachers can structure and organize their classrooms to promote responsible student behavior.
    • This page provides a framework for basic classroom management not teaching philosophy. To better understand teaching philosophies Ron Clark (middle school) and Rafe Esquith (elementary school) serve as leading examples for both rookie and master teachers. .
  • Teachers should explicitly teach students how to behave responsibly in every classroom situation. Discipline Without Stress by Dr. Marvin Marshall is a good reference book because it shows how to use internal motivation rather than punishment, threats or rewards to change behavior.
  • Teachers should spend more time acknowledging responsible behavior instead of responding to misbehavior such as defiance or disruptions..
  • Teachers should plan their responses to misbehavior to ensure responses are brief, calm and consistent. The discipline methodology developed by Dr. Marvin Marshall does not put the student on the defensive and puts the onus for behavior on the student. Here is a discipline chart and worksheet adapted from his model.

The focus is on techniques and strategies to improve student behavior, attitude and motivation, This process is broken up into the following 8 different modules:
  1. Vision
  2. Organization
  3. Expectations
  4. The First Month
  5. Motivation
  6. Monitor and Revise
  7. Correction Procedures
  8. Class-Wide Motivation Systems

Other good classroom management sites:

Vision
When you know where you are headed you can guide students toward their own success.

Step 1. Establish long range classroom goals.
Establish and publish your vision based on your educational principles and reality (state standards) in 4 or less sentences.
Step 2. Published guidelines for success.
Guidelines are attitudes and behaviors that help students succeed in life. Do not confuse guidelines with rules! Rules are different because they are specific, observable behaviors that have consequences if not followed. Keep them simple.
Step 3. Positive expectations.
Stephen Covey's (author of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People) first habit, to be proactive is the best way to describe this section. Proactive people work on things they can do something about. The nature of their energy is positive, enlarging and magnifying, causing their circle of influence to increase. Covey says that behavior is a function of our decisions, not our conditions.
Step 4. Family contact
The probability of effectively teaching students increases when schools and families work together.
  • Contact with the family should be made before school starts. See the welcome greeting for a sample of the following key points that should be in your welcome letter:
    • Welcome greeting that indicates an interest in getting to know your students' families.
    • Your background.
    • Goals for the year - academic, social and behavioral.
    • Best time for parents to contact you.
    • Classroom guidelines and rules.
    • Invite questions or comments.
  • Contacts within the first 2 weeks of school tend to increase parental involvement

Step 5. Professionalism.
The five P's:
  1. Prompt. Be on time.
  2. Prepared. Have your materials and completed assignments out and ready at the start of class.
  3. Productive. On task and actively involved in the learning process.
  4. Respect. Show respect to self, others and property.
  5. Positive. Optimistic about learning.

Step 6. Behavior management principles.
Develop principles of student behavior by managing conditions that set the stage and consequences. Pleasant consequences should result in the behavior increasing in the future. Unpleasant consequences result in the behavior decreasing in the future.
Step 7. Classroom structure.
Determine whether your classroom needs a classroom management plan with low, medium or high level of structure.



Organization

When you have well organized routines and procedures for your classroom, you model and prompt organized behavior from your students.

Step 1. Establish a daily schedule
Step 2. Physical space.
You can either write up a floor plan or use the Classroom Architect software to develop your floor plan. If possible, place your students in a circle to maximize the interaction and improve your community.
Step 3. Attention signal.
Step 4. Beginning and ending routines

Entering the Classroom

You want students to enter the classroom in an orderly way, go to their seats immediately and to begin productive tasks.
  • Greet students as they enter the classroom door or when you pick them up outside. This simple greeting sends a message that you are aware of your students the minute they are in your class.
  • Prepare an assignment (3 to 5 minutes to complete) that is instructionally significant - not just busy work. This assignment occupies students as soon as they sit at their desks and indicates that you value instructional time. Make certain to collect papers and record scores so that students know the work is significant.

Wrap-up
Leave enough time at the end of an activity or day to end on a relaxed note. You have three main goals:
  • ensure that all students organize their materials and complete any clean-up tasks.
  • Allot time to give students positive and corrective feedback
  • Set a positive tone for ending the class

Dismissal

Your goal is to ensure that students do not leave the class until you dismiss them. On the first day of school and when they return from vacations remind students that they are not to leave their seats when the bell rings. Explain that the bell is a signal to you to excuse the class when it is reasonably quiet and all wrap-up tasks have been completed. You can make judgments whether to excuse the whole class or selected tables first.
Step 5. Classroom rules.
Have an idea what is important to you as a teacher and then spend time with your students so they develop the rules.
Step 6. Student work.
Step 7. Classroom management plan
Positive Expectations
When your expectations are clear, students never have to guess how you expect them to behave.

Step 1. Teach expectations before an activity or transition begins.
To effectively manage activities and transitions you should know the answers to the following questions and explain to your students your expectations before starting any activity or transition. You should develop a large flipchart with visuals (like a student with their hand raised, water fountain, bathroom and so on) for the following 5 categories known by the acronym CHAMP:
  1. Conversation
  2. Help
  3. Activity
  4. Movement
  5. Participation

Activity - for example, a Teacher Direct Instruction
Conversation:
Can students engage in conversation with each other during this activity?
  • If yes about what?
  • With whom?
  • How many students can be involved in a single conversation?
  • How long can the conversation last?
Help:
How do students get questions answered? How do students get your attention?
  • If students have to wait for help, what should they do while they wait?
Activity:
What is the expected end product of this activity?
Movement:
Can students get out of their seats during this activity?
  • If yes, acceptable reasons include:
  • Do they need permission from you?
Participation:
What behaviors show that students are behaving fully and responsibly in the activity?
What behaviors show that students are not participating in the activity?

Transition - for example, lining up for lunch
Conversation:
Can students engage in conversation with each other during this transition?
  • If yes, clarify how so that they are keeping their attention on completing the transition.
  • With whom?
Help:
How do students get questions answered? How do students get your attention?
Activity:
Explain the transition. What will be different afterwords (i.e., change in location, use of different material and so on)?
  • Include time criteria
Movement:
If the transition itself DOES NOT involve getting oput of seats, can the students get out of their seats for any reason?
  • If yes, acceptable reasons include:
  • If the transition includes out of seat movement can the students go elsewhere (i.e., to sharpen a pencil)?
Participation:
What behaviors show that students are behaving fully and responsibly in the transtion?
What behaviors show that students are not participating in the transition?


Step 2. Monitor student behavior by circulating and visually scanning.
Step 3. Provide feedback during and at the conclusion of the activity. Repeat the cycle beginning at Step 1.

The First Month
When you teach students how to behave responsibly during the first month of school, you dramatically increase their chances of having a productive year.

Step 1. Final Preparations.
Step 2. Day 1.
Step 3. The first 4 weeks.
Step 4. Special circumstances.


Motivation
When you implement effective instruction and positive feedback, you motivate students to demonstrate their best behavior.

Step 1. Enthusiasm.
Present tasks or desired behaviors in a manner that will generate enthusiasm (and intrinsic motivation) on the part of students.
To increase intrinsic motivation, think about using these four strategies, singly or in combination:
  • Explain why or how the task or behavior will be useful to students.
  • Give students a vision of what they will be able to do eventually. Be creative.
  • Relate new tasks to previously learned skills.
  • Rally the enthusiasm and energy of students (give a pep talk).
Step 2. Effective instruction.

Implement effective instructional practices to keep students interested and academically engaged. Effective teachers:
  • Periodically evaluate and improve their presentational style (tone of voice, intensity, etc.).
  • State clear objectives and evaluate student progress.
  • Actively involve students in lessons.
  • Provide students with immediate performance feedback.
  • Work for high rates of student success

Step 3. Attention.
Step 4. Positive feedback.
Effective feedback should be specific and descriptive and related to a behavior or set of behaviors that did in fact occur. Avoid using repetitive phrases like "good job" and alwasy keep the focus on the student. Do not call attention to yourself by using phrases such as, "I like the way you..." Give students positive feedback in a variety of ways on their progress and success in meeting academic and behavioral goals.
Incorporate these suggestions into the positive feedback you give your students. By doing so, you can significantly increase the probability that your feedback will encourage students to behave more responsibly in the future.
  • Feedback should be accurate.
  • Feedback should be specific and descriptive.
  • Feedback should be meaningful and reflect some level of importance.
  • Feedback should be age-appropriate.
  • Feedback should be given in a manner that fits your own style.
Step 5. Intermittant Celebrations.
The main distinction between a group of people who happen to be together and a community is that a community of people support each other and celebrate together through rituals and ceremonies.
Step 6. Ratio of Interactions.
The behavior you attend to the most will be the one you see more of in the future. What behavior do you manage most - positive or negative behavior? Research says: Teachers should use a 5:1 ratio. For every 1 corrective or negative interaction, the teacher needs to provide 5 positives for appropriate behavior
Monitor and Revise
When you monitor what is actually going on in your classroom, you are able to make adjustments to your classroom management plan that will ensure success.

Correction Procedures
When you treat student misbehavior as an instructional opportunity, you give students a chance to learn from their mistakes.
  • Teachers should explicitly teach students how to behave responsibly in every classroom situation. Discipline Without Stress by Dr. Marvin Marshall is a good reference book because it shows how to use internal motivation rather than punishment, threats or rewards to change behavior.

Before you can begin any correction procedure that reduces future misbehavior occurrences you must be prepared to handle misbehavior effectively and avoid displaying frustration in the classroom. To do this you must first know the 4 types of misbehavior, they are:
  1. Awareness type. The student is not aware of misbehavior. Intervention should focus on making expectations clear, and helping the student become more aware of his/her behavior and its affect on others.
  2. Ability type. The student does not know how to behave properly. Intervention should focus on teaching the student how and when to perform the appropriate behavior.
  3. Attention seeking type. The student misbehaves to gain attention from peers and/or adults. Intervention should focus on ignoring misbehavior and teaching and reinforcing appropriate behavior.
  4. Escape avoidance type. Includes behavior that attempts to free the student from an adverse situation/person like difficult work, social situations and avoidance of school. Interventions vary according to the misbehavior.